Биология

Биоло́гия (греч. βιολογία; от др.-греч. βίος «жизнь» + λόγος «учение, наука»[1]) — система наук, объектами изучения которой являются живые существа и их взаимодействие с окружающей средой. Биология изучает все аспекты жизни, в частности, структуру, функционирование, рост, происхождение, эволюцию и распределение живых организмов на Земле. Классифицирует и описывает живые существа, происхождение их видов, взаимодействие между собой и с окружающей средой.

Как особая наука биология выделилась из естественных наук в XIX веке, когда учёные обнаружили, что все живые организмы обладают некоторыми общими свойствами и признаками, в совокупности не характерными для неживой природы. Термин «биология» был введён независимо несколькими авторами: Фридрихом Бурдахом в 1800 годуГотфридом Рейнхольдом Тревиранусом в 1802 году[2] и Жаном Батистом Ламарком в 1802 году.

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